The Kallar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar communities constitute the Kshatriya or warrior class of Tamil Nadu, South India. They are a prominent social group of India. They descent from the ancient royal dynasties of the southern region. They have proven Indian histories of more than 3000 years
Kallar(Tamil: கள்ளர்)is one of the three communities which constitute the Mukkalathor confederacy. European eyewitnesses of the 18th century have made mention of Kallars as "a fearless tribe show many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation". They were expert soldiers and constituted the bulk of Chola and Pandya armies.
One of the principal weapons of the Kallars is the boomerang. This has evoked comparisons with the Australian aborigines and vouch for the theory that Kallars were one of the earliest people to inhabit the Indian subcontinent. The principal occupation of Kallars is farming.
Kallars are found largely in Madurai, Sivagangai, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Trichy, Theni and Ramanathapuram districts of Tamil Nadu. One of their popular deities is Kallazhagar who is a warrior form of Lord Thirumala or Venkadavan.
There are various sub-castes of Kallars, amongst whom the Ambalakarar is the most important. They were a warlike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. They are found in Madurai and Sivaganga districts. In these districts, each village is headed by an Ambalakarar (president of an assembly) and the Ambalakarars took upon themselves the power to adjudicate disputes that arose among the inhabitants in the "nadu", belonging to different castes. They used to hear complaints, hold inquiries and punish the offenders. They wielded considerable powers to intervene in any kind of transaction or transfer of property among the people. No land could be alienated from one man to another without the permission of the Ambalakarars. Another important Kallar subcaste is the Piramalai Kallar. They are highly conservative and have preserved their customs and traditions to the present day. They are also believed to be the oldest inhabitants of the Tamil country with reports of their presence going back to Tamil literary works of the 4th century B.C. They are found mainly in the districts of Madurai and Theni. Their popular deity is Amman, the Mother Goddess.
There are kallar settlements in Aziz Nagar (near Ulundurpettai), Pammal (near Tambaram) and Prisly Nagar (Otteri,Chennai). Kallars (Thevar pattam) in these settlements are belived to be migrated from southern parts of Tamil Nadu to a place called Veppur (Cuddalore district). A temple ("Nallathangal kovil") established by them at Veppur on their migration and a Nallathangal temple found in a southern district is the only link to establish their migration.
Maravar (Tamil: மறவர்)(meaning "veerar",upper caste), are one of the oldest social groups to be mentioned by the Sangam Tamil literature. This indicates an association with the Tamil land which is at least 2,000 years old. The writers of the Sangam Age place them in rural settlements withdrawn from cities. Maravar, in Tamil, means a warrior. Maravars are the courageous breed and were involved in the major wars that Tamilnadu witnessed.The maravar are popularly given the title 'Thevar.Other historians postulate that Maravar is derived from Tamil language term Marutham (called as Thinnai). They originally lived in (See Ancient Tamil country). The name of the city Madurai is also postulated to be derived from Maruthai and honorific title of local Pandya kings..They were the rulers of ancient tamilnadu.They ruled the vast land mass of tamilnadu along with Paravar,the coastal rulers.Both these tribes have same origin and they are famous throughout south India for their valour.They were bloodly related akins.The Maravar and Paravar constitute the Kshatriya varna of Tamil caste system.The southern styles of Kalarippayattu,silambam,varma kalai have been practiced primarily by nairs ezhavas,Kallars and Thevars of erstwhile Travancore areas.The Maravar have close relation with kalabhras but they were non-aryan,non-kalabhar group.They were ancint rulers of Pandya kingdom from the first sangam age.Another predominant caste called the Paravars and Maravars were collectively called as Meenavar and Villavar of the past.They both have same origin and they had control over pandya kingdom.Their leaders were given the title"Meenavan" or "Pandyan".Later years the paravas diversified to various fields like pearl fishing,sea trading,also famous sailors came from that caste.But the maravas of meenavar still remained in their tradition.Veera Maravar are the fore fathers of varma kalai.The Maravas were unbeaten in the History of tamilnadu.They ruled Chera,Chola and Pandya kingdoms in later years and they were the Muvendar.Later Naga invasion,Nairis(the present day Nair caste)entered south India as allies to Maravar.But Later they changed their diplomatic stance to enemy and the cowardice attack of nairis made Maravar lose Chera kingdom.Edgar Thurston (1855-1935) a British museologist and ethnographer identified the use of the boomerang by kallar and marawar.
Agamudayar (Tamil: அகமுடையார்) also known as Agam Padaiyar is one of the three Mukkulathor communities. W. Francis writes about Agamudaiyans that they are "a cultivating caste found in all the tamil districts'. however, most agamudaiyars are found in Thanjavur, Madurai and Tirunelveli districts." 
There are various derivations of the word "Agamudaiyan" or "Ahamudaiyan". " derived from the root aham, which, in Tamil, has many significations.In one of these, it means a house, in another earth, and hence it has two meanings, householder and landholder ; the suffix Udeiyar indicating ownership. The word is also used in another form, ahambadiyan, derived from another meaning of the same root, i.e., inside. And, in this derivation, it signifies a particular caste, whose office it was to attend to the business in the interior of the king's palace, or in the pagoda". " The name," Mr. J. H. Nelson writes, "is said by the Rev. G. U. Pope, in his edition of the Abbe Dubois' work to be derived from aham, a temple, and padi, a step, and to have been given to them in consequence of their serving about the steps of temples. But, independently of the fact that Madura pagodas are not approached by fiights of steps, this seems to be a very far-fetched and improbable derivation of the word. I am inclined to doubt v/hettbe not merely ii vulgar corruption of the wellknown word Ahamudeiyan, possessor of a house, the title which Tamil Brahmans often use in speaking of a married man to his wife, in order to avoid the unpolite term husband. Or, perhaps, the name comes from aham in the sense of earth, and pati, master or possessor."
Of the Mukkulathor, the Agamudaiyans are the community most influenced by Brahminism. The ordinary title of the Agamudaiyans is Servaikkaran, but many of them call themselves Pillai. In Thanjavur district, agamudaiyans are also called "Terkittiyar" or "southerners". The Agamudaiyans are divided into the following sub-sects: Aivali Nattan, Kottaipattu, Malainadu, Nattumangalam, Rajaboja, Rajakulam, Rajavasal, Kalian,Sani, Maravan, Tuluvan (cf. Tuluva Vellala) and Servaikkaran.
There are diverse theories with regard to the origin of Mukkulathors.
Dr Spencer Wells and Dr. Pitchappan have found an ancient DNA marker in the blood of Kallar that links them to the very first modern humans who migrated out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and travelling through the southern coastline of Asia had eventually reached Australia. Based on this theory, it is assumed that the Piramala Kallars are the oldest human inhabitants of the subcontinent. Yet, this is an isolated case found only among the individuals of the Kallar caste.[citation
The Nayak Period and the Polygars
The downfall of the Mukkulathors occurred in 1345 with the fall of Vira Pandyan IV and the subsequent conquest of Madurai by the Delhi Sultanate. However, the southern territories of the Sultanate soon asserted their independence and the Mukkulathors recovered under the Vijayanagar Empire and later under the Nayak dynasty during whose period they served as Polygars or chieftains. The Nayaks were actually governors appointed by Vijayanagar kings and were Naidus of Telugu origin. Later, after the fall of Vijayanagar, they established some measure of independence in the provinces which they governed and appointed individuals from the warrior Mukkulathor clans as their military chieftains and governors. After a century of peace and prosperity, the Nayak kingdom disintegrated and regional Polygar chieftains most of whom were from the Mukkulathor communities, making use of this opportunity, established their dominance and rule in the areas which they governed. However, just as their sun was in its ascendancy there arose a serious obstacle in the form of the British East India Company who desired to force the Polygars into submission and annex their territories to the Madras Presidency.
 Freedom Fighters and the Polygar Wars
There was a clash of interests between Mukkulathor Polygar chieftains seeking to recover their lands after 400 years of foreign rule and the British East India Company, an emerging power seeking to expand its influence and power into new territories and to arrest the growth of French influence in India ahead of the Seven Years War.
The first direct challenge was thrown by Puli Thevan in 1755. This was precipitated by the support the British East India Company lent to Puli Thevar's enemy, the Nawab of Arcot. Puli Thevar is remembered as the first king to have fought and defeated the British in India. His exploits have since become legendary.
Resistance to British rule was also offered by Padal Vellaiya Devan who fought the British along with Kattabomman. His son Desakaval Senbaga Devar is also remembered for his exploits.
The surnames used by the Thevar people are Ambalakarar, Servai, Vandaiyar, Mannaiyar, Nattar (not Nadar), etc. It is a general practice in Tamil Nadu to address a Thevar woman as "Nachchiyaar". The Kallars of Dindigul, Trichy, Thanjavur, Theni, Madurai, Sivaganga, Pudukottai and Ramnad Districts have very distinct surnames. Some of the most common names are Anjathevar, Vanathirayar, Sendapiriyar, OOnayaar, Alathondamar, Ambalam, Aarsuthiyar,Kaadavaraayar, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Vallundar,Thanjaraayar, Chozhangaraayar, Kandiyar, Pursaar, Vaanavaraayar, Mazhavaraayar, Payer, Kommatti, Mootar, Patti, Kannakkarar, Irungular, Singilaar, Pallavaraayar,Ponnapoondar,Pullavaraayar, Servai, Karaimeendar,Vanavarayar,Vairayar,Ponpethiar,Gopalar, Thondaimaan, Thevar, Kandapillai, Vayaadiyar, Vanniar, Nattaar, Alankara Priyar, Munaiyatriyar,Keerudayar, Saaluvar, Manraayar,Kaadavaraayar, Madhavarayar, Onthiriyar, Servai, Serumadar, Vambaliar, Thenkondaar, Mankondaar, Kaaduvetiyaar, Sozhagar, Chozanga Nattar,olivarayar etc. There are over 700 surnames in use.
In 18 th century Vallambars (Nattars) helped the Maruthu brothers in War against Britishers. So they presents some areas to them, to manage the administration of places near to Karaikkudi. Then Vallambars are also called as Palaya Nattars
Although a great many of the members are still agriculturalists, many have also progressed up the social ladder as doctors, engineers, entrepreneurs, politicians and civil servants. Large number of people from the community are serving the nation as military men. Large number of people serving the tamilnadu police department
The code of suicide by warriors or maravars in ancient tamilnadu
Avippali, Thannai, Verttal, Vallan pakkam, Pun Kilithu Mudiyum Maram and Marakkanchi: the forms of martial suicide and suicidal battle of the warrior as the ultimate expression of his loyalty to his commander. These six forms of martial suicide are defined as described by the works referred to above.
Pulla Vazhkai Vallan Pakkam – the martial attitude of the warrior who goes forth into suicidal battle is mentioned by Tholkappiyam. The other works refer to it as Thannai Verttal. Duarte Barbosa describes the practice among the Nayar(of the Chera kingdom). It was later noticed by British officials as well. It was also prevalent among the Maravar (of the Pandya kingdom) from whom the suicidal Aapathhuthavi bodyguard was selected. Thannai Verttal also refers to the suicide of a warrior on hearing that his king or commander has died (Purapporul Venpa Malai). Punkilithu Mudiyum Maram is the martial act of a warrior who commits suicide by tearing apart his battle wound.
Another form of martial suicide mentioned by all the works except Veera soliyam, is Avippali. Tamil inscriptions speak of it as Navakandam. Inscriptions found in many parts of Tamilnadu provide greater information on the practice. Navakandam is the act of a warrior who slices his own neck to fulfil the vow made to korravai – the Tamil goddess of war – for his commanders’ victory in battle. The Kalingathu Parani(10) – a work which celebrates the victory of the Chola king Kulotunga and his general Thondaman in the battle for Kalinga, describes the practice in detail. “The temple of korravai is decorated with lotus flowers which bloomed when the warriors sliced their own necks”(106); “they slice the base of their necks; the severed heads are given to the goddess”(111); “when the neck is sliced and the head is severed, the headless body jumps with joy for having fulfilled the vow”(113).
The epics of Chilapadikaram (5: 79-86) and Manimekalai (6: 50-51) mention the practice. To ensure the complete severing of the head, the warrior tied his hair to a bamboo bent taut before he cut his neck. Hero stones depicting this practice are found all over Tamil Nadu, and are called Saavan Kallu by locals. The warriors who thus committed suicide were not only deified in hero stones (saavan kallu) and worshipped but their relatives were given lands which were exempted from tax(11).
An area handbook (Tharamangalam) of the Tamilnadu archeology department notes that “the Nava Kandam sculpture which is found widely all over Kongu Nadu (Coimbatore, Salem) is to be seen at the Tharamangalam Kailasanathar kovil also. The people call it Saavan Kallu. “The practice of Nava Kandam existed in Kongu Nadu till the early part of this [i.e., 20th] century.”(12)
A Saavan Kallu at Thenkarai Moolanatha sami Kovil in Madurai, depicting the act of a warrior holding his hair with his left hand and slicing his neck with his right – 14th century – is said to be annually worshipped by the Conjeevaram Mudaliyars.(13) The Conjeevaram Mudaliyars are Kaikolar, a presentday weaving caste which was militarized under the Chola empire and was made into a special military body; there are indications that Kaikolar warriors practiced Nava Kandam(14).
Apart from these codified forms of martial suicide, a method called Vadakkiruththal is mentioned in Tamil heroic poetry. It is the act of a warrior king fasting to death, if some dire dishonour were to come upon him(15). The Tamil teacher, and the Dravidian propagandist, turned the song of the legendary Chera king Irumborai who committed suicide when he was taken captive by his enemies into a compelling theme in Tamil renaissance.
The Avippali form of martial suicide as the ultimate expression of loyalty to one’s commander, is deeply embedded in the Tamil psyche. Senchorru-kadan (the debt of red rice) is a phrase that is widely used today by Tamils as an expression of loyalty. One frequently hears of it in a popular Tamil song. The phrase sands for the ritual of partaking of rice by which Maravar and other Tamil military caste warriors bound themselves to their king or commander to die in suicidal battle for him, or to commit suicide on the day he was slain. Of Avippali, the Puraporul Venba Malai ([verse] 92) says, “thinking of nothing but the red (blood) rice the Maravar give their life as offering in battle.”
The ritual of red or blood rice was described by two Muslim travellers who had visited the Tamil country in the 9th century. “A quantity of cooked rice was spread before the king, and some three or four hundred persons came of their own accord and received each a small quantity of rice from the king’s own hands, after he himself had eaten some. By eating of this rice, they all engage themselvesto burn themselves on the day the king dies or is slain; and they punctually fulfill their promise.”(16) In modern times it has been observed that “when a Maravar takes food in the house of a stranger, he will take a pinch of earth and put it on the food before he commences his meal.”(17) This act freed him from the debt of blood rice.Some also committed suicide by eating bricks.
Kallar mainly lived and are still populas on the northern pandian territory or Thanjavur, Thiruchirappalli, Dindugal, Madurai districts.
Agamudaiyar formed the police force and did security jobs. They bascially stood guard for Temple, Farm lands, Nadan hamlets. They are called servai in Thirunalveli, Thoothukudi districts. Maruthu Sagothararkal are marked for their guard of Kalayar koil against the war with British. They are scaterd all thro Pandiyan Territory mainly to all temple cities.
"In Madurai - West Masi Street,their community people formed a AGAMUDAIYAR ARAN(Maruthu pandiyar mandram)"
Maravar are brave warriors who met head-on. They lived and are still populas on the northern Pandian Territory next to Kallar belt in the districts of Ramnad, Madurai, Raja Palayam, Thirunelveli. They shared the ruling titles of Pandiyans for their bravery. Raja of Ramnad is the fact for this.
When the pandian suffered defeat at the hands of Nayaks and Muslims of Vijayanagar Empire, These 3 castes stood guard and gave their life in protecting the assets of Madurai Meenakshi temple and its chain of temples down south. They retained the pandian control and still are dominant in the southern pandiyan districts of Tamilnadu