மூவேந்தர் முன்னேற்றக் கழகம்

மூவேந்தர் முன்னேற்றக் கழகம்

பக்கங்கள்

வியாழன், 11 செப்டம்பர், 2008

Mukkulathor

Mukkulathor means Mukulathaar (Tamil: முக்குலத்தோர்) is used to refer to the trinity of ancient Tamil royal lineages. It can be roughly translated as "people of the three clans", a reference to the three aristocratic clans (Kallar, Maravar and Agamudayar) which have supplied the Tamil country with most of its royal dynasties and warriors



Clans

The Kallar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar communities constitute the Kshatriya or warrior class of Tamil Nadu, South India. They are a prominent social group of India. They descent from the ancient royal dynasties of the southern region. They have proven Indian histories of more than 3000 years


Kallar

Kallar(Tamil: கள்ளர்)is one of the three communities which constitute the Mukkalathor confederacy. European eyewitnesses of the 18th century have made mention of Kallars as "a fearless tribe show many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation". They were expert soldiers and constituted the bulk of Chola and Pandya armies.

One of the principal weapons of the Kallars is the boomerang. This has evoked comparisons with the Australian aborigines and vouch for the theory that Kallars were one of the earliest people to inhabit the Indian subcontinent. The principal occupation of Kallars is farming.

Kallars are found largely in Madurai, Sivagangai, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Trichy, Theni and Ramanathapuram districts of Tamil Nadu. One of their popular deities is Kallazhagar who is a warrior form of Lord Thirumala or Venkadavan.

There are various sub-castes of Kallars, amongst whom the Ambalakarar is the most important. They were a warlike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. They are found in Madurai and Sivaganga districts. In these districts, each village is headed by an Ambalakarar (president of an assembly) and the Ambalakarars took upon themselves the power to adjudicate disputes that arose among the inhabitants in the "nadu", belonging to different castes. They used to hear complaints, hold inquiries and punish the offenders. They wielded considerable powers to intervene in any kind of transaction or transfer of property among the people. No land could be alienated from one man to another without the permission of the Ambalakarars. Another important Kallar subcaste is the Piramalai Kallar. They are highly conservative and have preserved their customs and traditions to the present day. They are also believed to be the oldest inhabitants of the Tamil country with reports of their presence going back to Tamil literary works of the 4th century B.C. They are found mainly in the districts of Madurai and Theni. Their popular deity is Amman, the Mother Goddess.

There are kallar settlements in Aziz Nagar (near Ulundurpettai), Pammal (near Tambaram) and Prisly Nagar (Otteri,Chennai). Kallars (Thevar pattam) in these settlements are belived to be migrated from southern parts of Tamil Nadu to a place called Veppur (Cuddalore district). A temple ("Nallathangal kovil") established by them at Veppur on their migration and a Nallathangal temple found in a southern district is the only link to establish their migration.


Maravar

Maravar (Tamil: மறவர்)(meaning "veerar",upper caste), are one of the oldest social groups to be mentioned by the Sangam Tamil literature. This indicates an association with the Tamil land which is at least 2,000 years old. The writers of the Sangam Age place them in rural settlements withdrawn from cities. Maravar, in Tamil, means a warrior. Maravars are the courageous breed and were involved in the major wars that Tamilnadu witnessed.The maravar are popularly given the title 'Thevar.Other historians postulate that Maravar is derived from Tamil language term Marutham (called as Thinnai). They originally lived in (See Ancient Tamil country). The name of the city Madurai is also postulated to be derived from Maruthai and honorific title of local Pandya kings..They were the rulers of ancient tamilnadu.They ruled the vast land mass of tamilnadu along with Paravar,the coastal rulers.Both these tribes have same origin and they are famous throughout south India for their valour.They were bloodly related akins.The Maravar and Paravar constitute the Kshatriya varna of Tamil caste system.The southern styles of Kalarippayattu,silambam,varma kalai have been practiced primarily by nairs ezhavas,Kallars and Thevars of erstwhile Travancore areas.The Maravar have close relation with kalabhras but they were non-aryan,non-kalabhar group.They were ancint rulers of Pandya kingdom from the first sangam age.Another predominant caste called the Paravars and Maravars were collectively called as Meenavar and Villavar of the past.They both have same origin and they had control over pandya kingdom.Their leaders were given the title"Meenavan" or "Pandyan".Later years the paravas diversified to various fields like pearl fishing,sea trading,also famous sailors came from that caste.But the maravas of meenavar still remained in their tradition.Veera Maravar are the fore fathers of varma kalai.The Maravas were unbeaten in the History of tamilnadu.They ruled Chera,Chola and Pandya kingdoms in later years and they were the Muvendar.Later Naga invasion,Nairis(the present day Nair caste)entered south India as allies to Maravar.But Later they changed their diplomatic stance to enemy and the cowardice attack of nairis made Maravar lose Chera kingdom.Edgar Thurston (1855-1935) a British museologist and ethnographer identified the use of the boomerang by kallar and marawar.


Agamudayar

Agamudayar (Tamil: அகமுடையார்) also known as Agam Padaiyar is one of the three Mukkulathor communities. W. Francis writes about Agamudaiyans that they are "a cultivating caste found in all the tamil districts'. however, most agamudaiyars are found in Thanjavur, Madurai and Tirunelveli districts." [1]

There are various derivations of the word "Agamudaiyan" or "Ahamudaiyan". " derived from the root aham, which, in Tamil, has many significations.[2]In one of these, it means a house, in another earth, and hence it has two meanings, householder and landholder ; the suffix Udeiyar indicating ownership. The word is also used in another form, ahambadiyan, derived from another meaning of the same root, i.e., inside. And, in this derivation, it signifies a particular caste, whose office it was to attend to the business in the interior of the king's palace, or in the pagoda".[2] " The name," Mr. J. H. Nelson writes, "is said by the Rev. G. U. Pope, in his edition of the Abbe Dubois' work to be derived from aham, a temple, and padi, a step, and to have been given to them in consequence of their serving about the steps of temples. But, independently of the fact that Madura pagodas are not approached by fiights of steps, this seems to be a very far-fetched and improbable derivation of the word. I am inclined to doubt v/hettbe not merely ii vulgar corruption of the wellknown word Ahamudeiyan, possessor of a house, the title which Tamil Brahmans often use in speaking of a married man to his wife, in order to avoid the unpolite term husband. Or, perhaps, the name comes from aham in the sense of earth, and pati, master or possessor."[2][3]

Of the Mukkulathor, the Agamudaiyans are the community most influenced by Brahminism.[3][4] The ordinary title of the Agamudaiyans is Servaikkaran, but many of them call themselves Pillai.[4] In Thanjavur district, agamudaiyans are also called "Terkittiyar" or "southerners".[4] The Agamudaiyans are divided into the following sub-sects: Aivali Nattan, Kottaipattu, Malainadu, Nattumangalam, Rajaboja, Rajakulam, Rajavasal, Kalian,Sani, Maravan, Tuluvan (cf. Tuluva Vellala) and Servaikkaran.[4]


History

Origins

There are diverse theories with regard to the origin of Mukkulathors.

Dr Spencer Wells and Dr. Pitchappan have found an ancient DNA marker in the blood of Kallar that links them to the very first modern humans who migrated out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and travelling through the southern coastline of Asia had eventually reached Australia. Based on this theory, it is assumed that the Piramala Kallars are the oldest human inhabitants of the subcontinent. Yet, this is an isolated case found only among the individuals of the Kallar caste.[citation


The Nayak Period and the Polygars

The downfall of the Mukkulathors occurred in 1345 with the fall of Vira Pandyan IV and the subsequent conquest of Madurai by the Delhi Sultanate. However, the southern territories of the Sultanate soon asserted their independence and the Mukkulathors recovered under the Vijayanagar Empire and later under the Nayak dynasty during whose period they served as Polygars or chieftains. The Nayaks were actually governors appointed by Vijayanagar kings and were Naidus of Telugu origin. Later, after the fall of Vijayanagar, they established some measure of independence in the provinces which they governed and appointed individuals from the warrior Mukkulathor clans as their military chieftains and governors. After a century of peace and prosperity, the Nayak kingdom disintegrated and regional Polygar chieftains most of whom were from the Mukkulathor communities, making use of this opportunity, established their dominance and rule in the areas which they governed. However, just as their sun was in its ascendancy there arose a serious obstacle in the form of the British East India Company who desired to force the Polygars into submission and annex their territories to the Madras Presidency.

[edit] Freedom Fighters and the Polygar Wars

There was a clash of interests between Mukkulathor Polygar chieftains seeking to recover their lands after 400 years of foreign rule and the British East India Company, an emerging power seeking to expand its influence and power into new territories and to arrest the growth of French influence in India ahead of the Seven Years War.

The first direct challenge was thrown by Puli Thevan in 1755. This was precipitated by the support the British East India Company lent to Puli Thevar's enemy, the Nawab of Arcot. Puli Thevar is remembered as the first king to have fought and defeated the British in India. His exploits have since become legendary.

Resistance to British rule was also offered by Padal Vellaiya Devan who fought the British along with Kattabomman. His son Desakaval Senbaga Devar is also remembered for his exploits.

Queen Velu Nachiyar, Queen of Sivaganga, is another noted personality who fought with the British during early British Era.

The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers are notable for their role in the Polygar Wars. They were eventually captured by the British and hanged in 1801.

[edit] Surnames

The surnames used by the Thevar people are Ambalakarar, Servai, Vandaiyar, Mannaiyar, Nattar (not Nadar), etc. It is a general practice in Tamil Nadu to address a Thevar woman as "Nachchiyaar". The Kallars of Dindigul, Trichy, Thanjavur, Theni, Madurai, Sivaganga, Pudukottai and Ramnad Districts have very distinct surnames. Some of the most common names are Anjathevar, Vanathirayar, Sendapiriyar, OOnayaar, Alathondamar, Ambalam, Aarsuthiyar,Kaadavaraayar, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Vallundar,Thanjaraayar, Chozhangaraayar, Kandiyar, Pursaar, Vaanavaraayar, Mazhavaraayar, Payer, Kommatti, Mootar, Patti, Kannakkarar, Irungular, Singilaar, Pallavaraayar,Ponnapoondar,Pullavaraayar, Servai, Karaimeendar,Vanavarayar,Vairayar,Ponpethiar,Gopalar, Thondaimaan, Thevar, Kandapillai, Vayaadiyar, Vanniar, Nattaar, Alankara Priyar, Munaiyatriyar,Keerudayar, Saaluvar, Manraayar,Kaadavaraayar, Madhavarayar, Onthiriyar, Servai, Serumadar, Vambaliar, Thenkondaar, Mankondaar, Kaaduvetiyaar, Sozhagar, Chozanga Nattar,olivarayar etc. There are over 700 surnames in use.

In 18 th century Vallambars (Nattars) helped the Maruthu brothers in War against Britishers. So they presents some areas to them, to manage the administration of places near to Karaikkudi. Then Vallambars are also called as Palaya Nattars

Current Status

Although a great many of the members are still agriculturalists, many have also progressed up the social ladder as doctors, engineers, entrepreneurs, politicians and civil servants. Large number of people from the community are serving the nation as military men. Large number of people serving the tamilnadu police department


The code of suicide by warriors or maravars in ancient tamilnadu

Avippali, Thannai, Verttal, Vallan pakkam, Pun Kilithu Mudiyum Maram and Marakkanchi: the forms of martial suicide and suicidal battle of the warrior as the ultimate expression of his loyalty to his commander. These six forms of martial suicide are defined as described by the works referred to above.

Pulla Vazhkai Vallan Pakkam – the martial attitude of the warrior who goes forth into suicidal battle is mentioned by Tholkappiyam. The other works refer to it as Thannai Verttal. Duarte Barbosa describes the practice among the Nayar(of the Chera kingdom). It was later noticed by British officials as well. It was also prevalent among the Maravar (of the Pandya kingdom) from whom the suicidal Aapathhuthavi bodyguard was selected. Thannai Verttal also refers to the suicide of a warrior on hearing that his king or commander has died (Purapporul Venpa Malai). Punkilithu Mudiyum Maram is the martial act of a warrior who commits suicide by tearing apart his battle wound.

Another form of martial suicide mentioned by all the works except Veera soliyam, is Avippali. Tamil inscriptions speak of it as Navakandam. Inscriptions found in many parts of Tamilnadu provide greater information on the practice. Navakandam is the act of a warrior who slices his own neck to fulfil the vow made to korravai – the Tamil goddess of war – for his commanders’ victory in battle. The Kalingathu Parani(10) – a work which celebrates the victory of the Chola king Kulotunga and his general Thondaman in the battle for Kalinga, describes the practice in detail. “The temple of korravai is decorated with lotus flowers which bloomed when the warriors sliced their own necks”(106); “they slice the base of their necks; the severed heads are given to the goddess”(111); “when the neck is sliced and the head is severed, the headless body jumps with joy for having fulfilled the vow”(113).

The epics of Chilapadikaram (5: 79-86) and Manimekalai (6: 50-51) mention the practice. To ensure the complete severing of the head, the warrior tied his hair to a bamboo bent taut before he cut his neck. Hero stones depicting this practice are found all over Tamil Nadu, and are called Saavan Kallu by locals. The warriors who thus committed suicide were not only deified in hero stones (saavan kallu) and worshipped but their relatives were given lands which were exempted from tax(11).

An area handbook (Tharamangalam) of the Tamilnadu archeology department notes that “the Nava Kandam sculpture which is found widely all over Kongu Nadu (Coimbatore, Salem) is to be seen at the Tharamangalam Kailasanathar kovil also. The people call it Saavan Kallu. “The practice of Nava Kandam existed in Kongu Nadu till the early part of this [i.e., 20th] century.”(12)

A Saavan Kallu at Thenkarai Moolanatha sami Kovil in Madurai, depicting the act of a warrior holding his hair with his left hand and slicing his neck with his right – 14th century – is said to be annually worshipped by the Conjeevaram Mudaliyars.(13) The Conjeevaram Mudaliyars are Kaikolar, a presentday weaving caste which was militarized under the Chola empire and was made into a special military body; there are indications that Kaikolar warriors practiced Nava Kandam(14).

Apart from these codified forms of martial suicide, a method called Vadakkiruththal is mentioned in Tamil heroic poetry. It is the act of a warrior king fasting to death, if some dire dishonour were to come upon him(15). The Tamil teacher, and the Dravidian propagandist, turned the song of the legendary Chera king Irumborai who committed suicide when he was taken captive by his enemies into a compelling theme in Tamil renaissance.

The Avippali form of martial suicide as the ultimate expression of loyalty to one’s commander, is deeply embedded in the Tamil psyche. Senchorru-kadan (the debt of red rice) is a phrase that is widely used today by Tamils as an expression of loyalty. One frequently hears of it in a popular Tamil song. The phrase sands for the ritual of partaking of rice by which Maravar and other Tamil military caste warriors bound themselves to their king or commander to die in suicidal battle for him, or to commit suicide on the day he was slain. Of Avippali, the Puraporul Venba Malai ([verse] 92) says, “thinking of nothing but the red (blood) rice the Maravar give their life as offering in battle.”

The ritual of red or blood rice was described by two Muslim travellers who had visited the Tamil country in the 9th century. “A quantity of cooked rice was spread before the king, and some three or four hundred persons came of their own accord and received each a small quantity of rice from the king’s own hands, after he himself had eaten some. By eating of this rice, they all engage themselvesto burn themselves on the day the king dies or is slain; and they punctually fulfill their promise.”(16) In modern times it has been observed that “when a Maravar takes food in the house of a stranger, he will take a pinch of earth and put it on the food before he commences his meal.”(17) This act freed him from the debt of blood rice.[2]Some also committed suicide by eating bricks.

Other version

Kallar, Maravar, Agamudaiyar basically are the Pandiya and chola caste who ruled the pandiya nadu and chola nadu.

Kallar mainly lived and are still populas on the northern pandian territory or Thanjavur, Thiruchirappalli, Dindugal, Madurai districts.

Agamudaiyar formed the police force and did security jobs. They bascially stood guard for Temple, Farm lands, Nadan hamlets. They are called servai in Thirunalveli, Thoothukudi districts. Maruthu Sagothararkal are marked for their guard of Kalayar koil against the war with British. They are scaterd all thro Pandiyan Territory mainly to all temple cities.

"In Madurai - West Masi Street,their community people formed a AGAMUDAIYAR ARAN(Maruthu pandiyar mandram)"

Maravar are brave warriors who met head-on. They lived and are still populas on the northern Pandian Territory next to Kallar belt in the districts of Ramnad, Madurai, Raja Palayam, Thirunelveli. They shared the ruling titles of Pandiyans for their bravery. Raja of Ramnad is the fact for this.

When the pandian suffered defeat at the hands of Nayaks and Muslims of Vijayanagar Empire, These 3 castes stood guard and gave their life in protecting the assets of Madurai Meenakshi temple and its chain of temples down south. They retained the pandian control and still are dominant in the southern pandiyan districts of Tamilnadu

16 கருத்துகள்:

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Kallar

Kallar (Tamil: கள்ளர்) (meaning "Veerar"), is one of the three castes which constitute the Mukkalathor confederacy. "a fearless community show many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation". Kallars are found largely in Thanjavur, Trichy, Pudukkottai, Madurai, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Karur, kanchipuram, Theni and Ramanathapuram districts of Tamil Nadu.

Mukkulathor (Thevar)

Mukkulathor Means Three clans (Kallar, Maravar and Agamudayar) Combinedly called as Thevar (Estimated population 1,30,00,000).
Kallar, Maravar and Agamudayar are siblings and the Descendents of the Three clans chera, chola and Pandian. Thevar (Derived from Sanskrit Devar) means God early days Kings were portrayed as god and called as Thevar. Later the descendents of Muvenders were called as thevars.

Surnames

In Tamilnadu Kallars are called by various Surnames, these names comes to them during various times by the place they have ruled, the place they won in battle or to state their bravery.
There are over 1000 surnames in use. There are no other Castes in Tamilnadu have this many Surnames. Some of the commonly used Surnames are.
Malayaman, Adigaman, Mannaiyar, Rajaliyar, Vallavaraiyar, Thanjaraayar,Pallavaraayar,Vandaiyar,Paluvettaraiyar, Thondaiman, Etrandaar, Vaanavaraayar, Servai, Amballakkarar, Thevar, Sethurayar, SomaNaicker,Muniyarayar(Munaiyatriyar), Thondamar, Melkondar, Kallathil Venrar, , Nattar (not Nadar), Cholagar, kumarandar, Anjathevar, Olivarayar, Sendapiriyar, Alathondamar, Ambalam, Aarsuthiyar, Kaadavaraayar, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Veeramundar, Sepillaiyar, Vallundar, Chozhangaraayar, Kandiyar, Mazhavaraayar, Kommatti Mootar, Kannakkarar, Irungular, Singilaar, Ponnapoondar, Pullavaraayar, Araimeendar, Vairayar, Ponpethiar, Gopalar, Kandapillai, Vayaadiyar, Vanniar, Vallambar, Alankara Priyar, mavaliyar, Keerudayar, Saaluvar, Manraayar, Madhavarayar, Onthiriyar, Serumadar, Vambaliar, Thenkondaar, Mankondaar, etc.
It is a general practice in Tamil Nadu to address a Thevar woman as "Nachchiyaar"

During sangam

Thondaiman
The kings (Araiyars), were ruling Thondai Nadu, There are Hundreds of records pertaining to this dynasty. Thondai in Tamil means Kilay or pirivu, Pallava in Sanskrit defines the same, so Pallavas or Thondaiman are considered as a offshoot of Cholas later become an Prominent rulers.
Malayaman
The kings (Araiyars) ruled Tirukkoyilur during Chola kingdom with the title Malayaman (which is one of the family name of Kallar community). They were in close relation with Cholas. Sangam literature mentions of Tirumudikari, a Malayaman chief who fought alongside Perunarkilli Chola to defeat Cheral Irumporai (Irumporai Cheras). Vastly, Cholas, Cheras and even Satavahanas controlled the destiny in times.
Adigaman
The kings were ruling Tagadur, present villupuram district, One of The Four kingdoms Mentioned in rock-edict of Ashoka. Adigaman Naduman Anji King of Tagadur is Mentioned in rock-edict of Ashoka as Satyaputra Inscriptions found from Villuppuram Proves that stating Adigaman(which is one of the family name of Kallar community). as Satyaputra Adhiyan Neduman Anji intha Pali.

Chola

The Chola Dynasty (Tamil:சோழர் குலம்) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century the other two royal dynastys were Pandian and Chera. The meaning of chola Is unknown. Chera, chola and pandian are considered as Siblings.
The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. Karikala Chola was the most famous among the early Chola kings, while Aditya I, Parantaka I, Rajaraja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, Kulothunga Chola and Kulothunga Chola III were notable emperors of the medieval Cholas.
Chera, chola and pandian are commonly called as Thevar to mean they are desendents of Lord Indra. But specially cholas were called by many Surnames all these surnames (Mel kondar, Chozangar, Thevar etc.) are now used by Kallars only shows that Cholas are from the Royal Kallar community. The Bramanda puranas Puvindra puranam and Kalla Kesari Purannam also Mentions the same.
Many Archaeologists and Historians Also proves that Cholas are Kallar.
Lots of mariages takes place between cholas with malavarayar, malayaman, Paluvettaraiyar,Melkondar and Vallavaraiyar. they also belongs to Kallar community.

Pallavas

The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian tamil kingdom. Later they extended their rule to further south and established their capital at Kanchipuram around the 4th century CE. They rose in power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571 – 630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of Tamil region for about six hundred years until the end of the 9th century. The word Pallava means branch in Sanskrit. The word is rendered as Tondaiyar in Tamil language. The Pallava kings at several places are called Thondamans or Thondaiyarkon. The territory of the Pallavas was known as Tundaka Visaya or Tundaka Rashtra. The sancrit meaning of pallava is Kilay The tamil Thondai means the same, it proves that pallavas are desendents (Kilay or Pirivu) of chola.
Pathupattu, one of the sangam literatures, reads that the king Thondaiman Ilandirayan ruled this town around 2500 years ago. The pallavas are told as the descendents of Thondaiman Ilandirayan.
They were also called by surnames like sethurayar pallavarayar vandarayar, kadurayar,Vallavarayar,vanathirayar,kaliyarayar etc. all these surnames are used by Kallrs only. Proves that Pallavar are Decendents of Chola (Kallar).

Tamil copper-plate inscriptions

The discovery of Indian copper plate inscriptions provided a relative abundance of new evidence for use in evolving a chronicle of India's elusive history.
During chola rule there were many small kings(Araiyar) were Ruling there Respective area under Chola.Some of the names are seen in Tamil copper-plate inscriptions was also mentioned in Ponniyin Selvan (Tamil historical novel written by Kalki Krishnamurthy

Paluvettaraiyar(பழுவேட்டரையன்)
Malayaman(மலையமான்)
Vallavaraiyar(வல்லவரையன்)
Muniaraiyar
Nilakkilar
Kaliyaraiyar
Puvaraiyar
Velar(வேளார்)
Vanataraiyar
Thondaiman(தொண்டைமான்)

During Vijayanagar Empire

The downfall of the Mukkulathors occurred in 1345 with the fall of Vira Pandyan IV and the subsequent conquest of Madurai by the Delhi Sultanate. However, the southern territories of the Sultanate soon asserted their independence and the Mukkulathors recovered under the Vijayanagar Empire and later under the Nayak dynasty during whose period they served as Polygars or chieftains.
The northern parts of Tamilnadu Behind Kongu nadu was called as Kallar Nadu (Thanjavur, Trichy, Pudukkottai and part of Madurai.) and was governed by kallar Polygors

Notable Reformers

Although there are Many Kings, Polygors ,Zamindars and Land lords the main occupation of kallar is Warrior, hence many Kallar Families struggled for income During British rule and after independence.. There were many reformers served for their Community.
Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar (முத்து ராமலிங்க தேவர்)
- Freedom fighter, social reformer, a descendant of pandiya kings and known for his relationship with Nethaji
P. K. Mookayya Thevar (1923 – 1979) (மூக்கையா தேவர் )
-Founder of the Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar college, President of All India Forward Bloc.
Zamindar Gopalsamy Rajaliar (மேன்மை பொருந்திய வா. கோபாலசாமி ரகுநாத இராசாளியார்)
-Philanthropist, President indra kuladibar sangam.
H. R. H. Rajagopala Tondaiman, Maharajah of Pudukottai (Thondaiman dynasty of Pudukkottai)
Chevalier Nadikar Thilagam Sivaji Ganesan (நடிகர் திலகம் சிவாஜி கணேசன்)
N.P.M Manicham Errthaandaar.(மக்கள் தொண்டர் ந.பா.மா மாணிக்கம் ஏற்றாண்டார்)
-Founder Mukkalathor Higher Secondary School and Tamilnadu Maanavar illam. Thiruverumbur, Founder Urimai murasu magazine(1954).
Late Rao Bahadur Sri. A.Veeriya Vandayar (Poondi. Vandayar)
G.M.Premkumar Vandayar,(பிரேம் குமார் வாண்டையார் )
-Founder Mooventhar Munnettra Kazhagam
G.M. Sridhar Vandayar,(ஸ்ரீதர் வாண்டையார்)
-leader of Moovender Munnetra Kazhagam

Current Status

Although a great many of the members are still agriculturalists, many have also progressed up the social ladder as doctors, engineers, entrepreneurs, politicians and civil servants. Large number of people from the community are serving the nation as military men. Large number of people serving the tamilnadu police department.

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கள்ளர்

தமிழகத்திலே தஞ்சை, திருச்சிராப்பள்ளி, புதுக்கோட்டை, மதுரை, இராமநாதபுரம், திருநெல்வேலி ஆகிய மாவட்டங்களில் இருந்து வரும் ஓர் பெருங் குழுவினரைக் கள்ளர் என வழங்கப்படுகிறது. இப்பொழுது இக்குழுவினரில் நீதி மன்றங்கள் பலவும் அமைத்துத் தமது நாட்டினை ஆட்சிபுரிந்து வருகின்ற ஓர் மன்னரும், குறுநில மன்னராய் பல சமீன்தார்களும், பெரு நிலவுரிமையாளர்களும் இருக்கின்றனர்.

முக்குலத்தோர் (தேவர்)

முக்குலத்தோர் என்றும் இச்சாதியினரைக் குறிப்பிடுவதுண்டு. கள்ளர், அகமுடையர் (அகம்படியர்), மறவர் ஆகிய முக்குலங்களை உள்ளடக்கியதால் இச்சாதியினர் முக்குலத்தோர் என்றும் இந்திர குலத்தினர் என்பதால் தேவர் என்றும் குறிக்கப்பெறுவர்.கள்ளர், அகமுடையர் (அகம்படியர்), மறவர் ஆகிய மூவரும் சகோதரர்களே என்று கூறப்படுகின்றனர்

சங்ககாலம்

பண்டைத் தமிழகத்தில் புகழ் பெற்று விளங்கிய முன்று அரசர்கள் சேரர் சோழர் பாண்டியர் ஆவர இவர்கள் முவேந்தர்கள் அல்லது முக்குலத்தோர் என்று அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்அவர்களை தவிர சில சிற்றரசர்களும் அதியமான், மலையமான்,தொண்டைமான், போன்ற கள்ளர் குலப்பெயருடன்ஆட்சி செய்து வந்தனர் இவர்கள் அழைக்கப்பட்டனர்
இந்தியாவின் மிகச் சிறந்த அரசனாகத் திகழ்ந்தவன் மெளரியப் பேரரசன் அசோகன் கி.மு. மூன்றாம் நூற்றாண்டில் வாழ்ந்த அப்பெருமன்னன் இவன் தமிழகத்தை தவிர மொத்த இந்தியாவையும் ஆண்டு வந்தான் தனது கல்வெட்டுகளில் சோழர் பாண்டியர் கேரளபுத்ரர் ஸத்யபுத்ரர் ஆகியோரைக் குறிக்கிறான். இவர்களது நாடுகள் அவனது ஆட்சிக்கு உட்பட்டவை அல்ல. தனி ஆட்சி நடத்தியவை.

தொண்டைமான்
கரிகாலனை யடுத்துத் தொண்டைமான் இளந்திரையன் காஞ்சியிலிருந்து ஆட்சி புரிந்தோனாவன் இவன் கள்ளர் குலப்பெயரில் ஒன்றான தொண்டைமான் குலத்தை சேர்ந்தவன் இவன் குல மரபினர் காஞ்சீபுரத்தைத் தலைநகராகக் கொண்டு தொண்டை நாட்டை அரசாண்டு வந்தனர்.

அதியமான்
தமிழ்நாடு-கர்நாடக எல்லையில் இருந்த ஒரு நாட்டை ஆண்டோர் அதியமான்கள். இவர்கள் நாட்டின் தலைநகர் தகடூர் என்பதாகும். இது இன்றைய தர்மபுரி ஆகும். இப்போது அதியமான் கோட்டை தகடூரில் உள்ளது. இவர்கள் தமிழ்நாட்டின் மிகப் பழைய மரபான கள்ளர் குலத்தினர் எனக் கருதப்படுகிறது. இவர்கள் அதியமான் என்ற கள்ளர் குலப்பெயருடன்ஆட்சி செய்து வந்தனர் சங்கப் பாடல்களிலே அதியமான்கள் பற்றிய குறிப்புக்கள் உள்ளன. சங்கப் புலவரான ஔவையாருக்கு நெடுமான் அஞ்சி என்னும் அதியமான் என்பவன் நெருங்கியவனாக இருந்தான் என்று சங்கப் பாடல்கள் காட்டுகின்றன

மலையமான்
மலையமான் திருமுடிக்காரி என்பவன் சங்க காலத்தில் வாழ்ந்த மன்னர்களில் ஒருவன். இவன் கள்ளர் குலப்பெயரில் ஒன்றான மலையமான் குலத்தை சேர்ந்தவன். இவன் சிறந்த வீரன்; பெரிய வள்ளல்; புலவர்களால் புகழ்ந்து பாடப்பட்டவன்.

சோழர்

சோழர் பழந்தமிழ்நாட்டை ஆண்ட மூவேந்தர்களுள் அல்லது முக்குலத்தோரின் ஒரு குலத்தவராவர். மற்ற இரு குலங்கள் சேரர்களும் பாண்டியர்களும் ஆவர். சோழர் என்னும் பெயர் எவ்வாறு வழங்கத்தொடங்கியது என்பது தெரியவில்லை, சேரர், பாண்டியர் என்ற பெயர்களைப் போன்று சோழர் என்பது பண்டைக் காலந்தொட்டே ஆட்சி செய்து வரும் குடும்பம் அல்லது குலத்தின் பெயராகும் என்று பரிமேலழகரால் கருதப்பட்டது. சேர, சோழ, பாண்டியர் ஆகிய மூவரும் சகோதரர்களே என்று கூறப்படுகின்றன. சோழர்கள் கள்ளர்கள் என்பதற்கு பல அதாரங்கள் உள்ளன தொல்லியல் துறையும் பல வரலாற்று ஆசிரியர்களும் இதை உறுதி செய்கின்றனர். இந்திரன் ஆரியர் வழபட்ட கடவுள் என வடமொழி நூல்களிற் பெறப்படுமேனும், தமிழரது தெய்வம் என்று சிலர் கருதுகின்றனர். சோழர் தம் குல முதல்வனாகிய வேந்தனைத் தெய்வமாகக்கொண்டு வழிபட்டு வந்தன ரென்றும் கூறுவர். பழைய நாளில் சோழர்கள் இந்திரனுக்குப் பெருஞ் சிறப்புடன் திருவிழாச் செய்து போந்தமை சிலப்பதிகாரம் முதலியவற்றால் வெளிப்படை, சுராதி ராசன் முதலாகவரு சோழன் எனக் கலிங்கத்துப் பரணி கூறுகின்றது. இவ்வற்றிலிருந்து சோழர் இந்திர குலத்தாரென்பது பெறப்படுமேல் அவர் வழியினராகிய கள்ளர் இந்திர குலத்தினர் எனப்படுவது அதனானே அமையும். தேவர் என்னும் பெயர், இராசராச தேவர், இராசேந்திர தேவர், குலோத்துங்கசோழதேவர் எனச் சோழ மன்னர்க்கு வழங்கியிருப்பதும், கள்ளர், மறவர் அகம்படியர் என்னும் இவ்வகுப்பினரும் தேவர் என வழங்கப்படுவதும் இங்கு அறியற்பாலன.இனி, இம்மூன்று வகுப்பையும் குறித்துப் பூவிந்திர புராணம், கள்ளகேசரி புராணம் என்ற தமிழிலே புராணங்கள் எழுதப் பட்டிருக்கின்றன. இவையெல்லாம் பிரமாண்ட புராணம் முதலியவற்றைச் சேர்ந்தனவாம். சோழர்களுக்கு வழங்கப்பட்ட அத்துணை பட்டப்பெயர்களும் இன்று கள்ளர்களுக்கே வழங்கப்படுகின்றன(தேவர்,மேல்கொண்டான், சோழங்கன், சோழகங்கன், நாடாள்வார்.) சோழர்கள் பலர் திருமணம் செய்து கொண்டது மழவராயர் குடும்பத்தில் அந்த மழவராயரும் கள்ளர் தான். மேன்மை பொருந்திய வா. கோபாலசாமி ரகுநாத இராசாளியார் அவர்கள் இந்திர குலாதிபர் சங்கத்தின் நான்காவது அண்டு விழாவில் தலைவராக அமர்ந்து செய்த விரிவுரையில் பின்வருமாறு கூறியுள்ளனர்: 'இந்நாட்டை யாண்ட அரசர் பெருமக்களுள் சோழரைக் கள்வர் எனவே டாக்டர் பர்னலும், வெங்காசாமி ராவ் அவர்களும் குறிப்பிட்டுள்ளாரகள். திருவாளர்கள் ம. சீனிவாசையங்கார் அவர்கள், 'சோழர் சாதியிற் கள்ளரென்றும், பாண்டியர் சாதியில் மறவரென்றும் ஒரு சாரார் கொள்கை' என்பர். (செந்தமிழ், தொகுதி -2 , பக்கம்--175 இத்துணையும் காட்டிப் போந்தவைகளால் சோழர்கள் கள்ளர்கள் வகுப்பினரே என்பதில் சந்தேகம் இல்லை.

பல்லவர்

"பல்லவர் யாவர்? எங்கிருந்து வந்தனர்? தென்னாட்டு மன்னர்களில் எங்ஙனம் தலைமை யெய்தினர்? கரிகாலனை யடுத்துத் தொண்டைமான் இளந்திரையன் காஞ்சியிலிருந்து ஆட்சி புரிந்தோனாவன்.
இளந்திரையனுக்குச் சில தலைமுளை பின் வந்தோரே சிலர் ஆந்திர நாட்டிலும், சிலர் காஞ்சியிலுமாக இருந்து பல்லவர் என்னும் பெயருடன்ஆட்சி புரிந்தோராதல் வேண்டும், தொண்டை நாட்டுக்குப் பல்லவ என்பது ஒரு பெயர், அதுபற்றியே தொண்டையர், பல்லவ ரெனப்பட்டனர். இப்பெயரக்ளும், பல்லவர்க்கு வழங்கும் காடவர், காடுவெட்டி யென்னம் பெயர்களும், அந்நாடு முன்பு காடடர்ந்ததாய் இருந்திருக்கவேண்டு மென்று கருதச் செய்கின்றன. தொண்டையர் அல்லது தொண்டைமான் என்னும் பெரும், பல்லவர் என்னும் பெயரும், ஒருவகுப்பினரையே குறிப்பன என்பதில் எத்துணையும் ஐயமில்லை. தொண்டைமான் என்னும் பெயர் கொடிபற்றி வந்ததென்று கூறப்படுதலாயினும் .பல்லவம் என்பதற்குத் தளிரென்பது பொருளாகலானும் இவ்விரு பெயரும் ஒருவரைக் குறிக்கும் ஒரு பொருளுள்ளனவே எனச் சிலர் கருதுகின்றனர். பல்லவர்க்கு வழங்கும் போத்தரசர் என்னும் பெயரும் இப்பொருளதே யென்கினறனர். எனவே பல்லவர்கள் சோழர்கள் வழியில் வந்தோரே பல்லவர் என்றும் சிலர் கருதுகின்றனர். கள்ளர்களின் தலைவராகிய புதுக்கோட்டை மன்னர் தம்மை ராஜபல்லவ ரென்றும், பழைய அரச வமிசத்தின ரென்றும் சொல்லிக் கொள்கின்றனர். சர் வால்டர் எலியட் என்பார் கள்ளர்களில் ஒரு பிரிவினர் கலகக்கூட்டத்தாரில் ஒரு வகுப்பின ரென்றும, ஆண்மையும், அஞ்சாமையும், வீரமும் உள்ளவர்களென்றும் கூறுகின்றார். சரித்திர்ப்படி பல்லவர்களும் அவர்களை யொத்தவர்கள்தான். கள்ளர்கள் இன்று வரையிலும் கருநாடக பூமியிலுள்ள குடிமக்களை அடக்கியாண்டு, அவர்களிடமிருந்து. மகாராட்டியர் செளத் என்ற வரிவாங்கி வந்ததுபோல் ஒருவரியும்வாங்கி வந்திருக்கின்றனர். பல்லவரும் எதிரிகளாகிய தமிழ் மன்னர்களின் வலிமைக்கேற்பத் தமது ஆட்சியை நிலைநிறுத்தி வந்திருக்கின்றனர் இத்துணையும் காட்டிப் போந்தவைகளால் கள்ளர் பல்லவ வகுப்பினரே யென நிலை நாட்டப்படுகின்றது.

ENNAR சொன்னது…

நண்பரே உங்களுடன் தொடர்பு வைத்துக்கொள்ளவேண்டும்

ATHI AMBALAM சொன்னது…

I belong to caste kallar.we must improve our community at our best.mr.sridhar vandiar,please create a spirit that we are 'THEVARS'.we must rule. we need a leader like muthuramalinga thevar.I will do my best to improve our community.i need to contact you.

phoenix mahesh சொன்னது…

To rule still miles to go let first all teach our people to be diplomatic and learn to act under one leadership. silently there a lot of things happening in and around our caste improvement. even i accepet let we support mr.sridhar vandaiayar such that we get a leader.

veeraa சொன்னது…

veeraa P. Thillaikumaran,Puhtur

dear brother,
a marvelous job u have done ,
everyone to know his history then only the future will be very proud n strong. also the next generation will
know their forefathers power n our fearless comunity.thanks for creating
such a history.

kkrn சொன்னது…

Dear brother!

Verum wikpedia vil iruppathai copy panni poduvathai vittu vittu, puthithaaka nam samukaththai patri ulla seithikalai sekariyunkal..please..

Demigoddpi சொன்னது…

One mistake King Adhiyaman of Thagadur now Dharmapuri & Thondaiman are Vanniyar Caste

suba சொன்னது…

kallar meaning veerar and kallan meaning thief(roberry) i think this microsoft confusing the meaning. henc wikepedia should term kallar as veerar and not thief.
uma shankar

muthu suriyar சொன்னது…

u.MUTHU SURIYAR

KALLAR meanning no fear, no argument,no compramise only face to face fight.

Veer Maruti சொன்னது…

sakkili naaigalin kottathai paarungal....aalum jaathiyai serndha gounder, vanniyar, devar, naadar ena anaivarum ondrinaivom...indha video ellaam paarungal...and please spread it to our people... my mail id is ignitedtoburn@gmail.com

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p6moEWc53eY&feature=relmfu&ytsession=fT7Eg09E0Eam3_zVK4pqPEg2bwLzKaIjIjHfu_iWtN-acROYgVqf-xndGD3VsBUHAsqi5Rk1aEkACaZMCNFujZxCWZrJlg6G5fBWHUIpyzGpA8g1pMNmEo_vnlWTG6CzGYvsnq4DREzbEQd98GOSUiSs-cMycBhtvgW8ANRiGSEz5TYLfjQq-SX0um9ZAHLnfJchb40_HOV4dnnru8hJ0yRBXIejzUvccK6IWi2TLFjsqZtl494LkLGjObOSiDotwvKgohmSoZFBILFa54RbGQgnHo6GWPtiKwVF6znOV3A


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjzZXHCWww8&feature=relmfu

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GyfenxYJtNE

Puthunattuidaiyar Ramayanachavadi சொன்னது…

piramalai kallar
ettu nattu kallar talaivar
tirumalai pinnai devan oda
natpuravu kondavarkal madurai ramayana chavadi theru
Puthu nattu idaiyarkal
1000veetu yadavarkal

tarumathupatti seppedu
sundara vandhiya devan book
kaval kottam noval
p.muthu devar book

atharam

Puthunattuidaiyar Ramayanachavadi சொன்னது…

book name
Moovender kula devar varalaru
author
P.Muthu devar
year
1975

tirunelveli puthunattu idaiyarkalukkum
piramalai kallar kalukkum iruntha
relation kanalam

face book la
Aayiram veetu yadava uravinmurai la

pirmalai kallar talaivar
pinnai devan and tirumalai nayakar
silai profile photo va potrukanga

Aditya Viknesh சொன்னது…

Kallar are not Thevar , they are a bunch of low caste bandits .

KM Vasu சொன்னது…

i really appriciate this information.All mukkulathors support to our community

KM Vasu சொன்னது…

i really appriciate this information. all MUKKULATHOR support to our community. MANICKAVASAGAM.K (Agamudaiyar)